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Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2010 Mar;13(1):12-9. doi: 10.1038/pcan.2009.31. Epub 2009 Aug 4.

Urine markers in monitoring for prostate cancer.

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Laboratory of Molecular Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic.


The major advantages of urine-based assays are their noninvasive character and ability to monitor prostate cancer with heterogeneous foci. Almost all urine-detectable prostate-specific markers have been recently reviewed. For this reason, we focus here on only a few promising markers which have been independently evaluated (in particular PCA3, fusion genes, TERT, AMACR, GSTP1, MMP9 and VEGF) and very recent ones (ANXA3 and sarcosine). The emphasis is also on multiplex biomarker analysis and on microarray-based analysis of fusion genes. A combination of multiple urine biomarkers may be valuable in the case of men with persistently elevated serum prostate-specific antigen and a history of negative biopsies. The emerging urine tests should help in both early diagnosis of prostate cancer and identifying aggressive tumors for radical treatment.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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