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PLoS One. 2009 Jul 30;4(7):e6436. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006436.

Hippocampal volume reduction in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

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1
School of Nursing, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.

Abstract

Children with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), a genetic disorder characterized by diminished drive to breathe during sleep and impaired CO(2) sensitivity, show brain structural and functional changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, with impaired responses in specific hippocampal regions, suggesting localized injury.We assessed total volume and regional variation in hippocampal surface morphology to identify areas affected in the syndrome. We studied 18 CCHS (mean age+/-std: 15.1+/-2.2 years; 8 female) and 32 healthy control (age 15.2+/-2.4 years; 14 female) children, and traced hippocampi on 1 mm(3) resolution T1-weighted scans, collected with a 3.0 Tesla MRI scanner. Regional hippocampal volume variations, adjusted for cranial volume, were compared between groups based on t-tests of surface distances to the structure midline, with correction for multiple comparisons. Significant tissue losses emerged in CCHS patients on the left side, with a trend for loss on the right; however, most areas affected on the left also showed equivalent right-sided volume reductions. Reduced regional volumes appeared in the left rostral hippocampus, bilateral areas in mid and mid-to-caudal regions, and a dorsal-caudal region, adjacent to the fimbria.The volume losses may result from hypoxic exposure following hypoventilation during sleep-disordered breathing, or from developmental or vascular consequences of genetic mutations in the syndrome. The sites of change overlap regions of abnormal functional responses to respiratory and autonomic challenges. Affected hippocampal areas have roles associated with memory, mood, and indirectly, autonomic regulation; impairments in these behavioral and physiological functions appear in CCHS.

PMID:
19649271
PMCID:
PMC2713409
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0006436
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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