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Brain Res. 2009 Oct 19;1294:183-92. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2009.07.070. Epub 2009 Jul 29.

Bone marrow-derived cells are the major source of MMP-9 contributing to blood-brain barrier dysfunction and infarct formation after ischemic stroke in mice.

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Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Institute, Morehouse School of Medicine, 720 Westview Dr. SW, Atlanta, GA 30310, USA.


Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 has been shown to contribute to blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, infarct formation, and hemorrhagic transformation after ischemic stroke. The cellular source of MMP-9 detectable in the ischemic brain remains controversial since extracellular molecules in the brain may be derived from blood. We here demonstrate that bone marrow-derived cells are the major source of MMP-9 in the ischemic brain. We made bone marrow chimeric mice with MMP-9 null and wild-type as donor and recipient. After 90 min of transient focal cerebral ischemia, MMP-9 null mice receiving wild-type bone marrow showed comparable outcomes to wild-type in brain MMP-9 levels and BBB disruption (endogenous albumin extravasation) at 1 h post-reperfusion and infarct size at 24 h post-reperfusion. In contrast, wild-type animals replaced with MMP-9 null bone marrow showed barely detectable levels of MMP-9 in the ischemic brain, with attenuations in BBB disruption and infarct size. MMP-9 null mice receiving wild-type bone marrow showed enhanced Evans blue extravasation as early as 1 h post-reperfusion compared to wild-type mice replaced with MMP-9 null bone marrow. These findings suggest that MMP-9 released from bone marrow-derived cells influences the progression of BBB disruption in the ischemic brain.

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