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J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Oct 1;52(2):228-34. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181b06125.

Clinical and genotypic findings in HIV-infected patients with the K65R mutation failing first-line antiretroviral therapy in Nigeria.

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Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.



The HIV-1 epidemic in African countries is largely due to non-B HIV-1 subtypes. Patterns and frequency of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations observed in these countries may differ from those in the developed world, where HIV-1 subtype B predominates.


HIV-1 subtype and drug resistance mutations were assayed among Nigerian patients with treatment failure on first-line therapy (plasma HIV RNA >1000 copies/mL). Sequence analysis of the reverse transcriptase and protease gene revealed drug resistance mutations and HIV-1 viral subtype. Specific patterns of mutations and clinical characteristics are described in patients with the K65R mutation.


Since 2005, 338 patients were evaluated. The most prevalent subtypes were CRF02_AG [152 of 338 (44.9%)] and G [128 of 338 (37.9%)]. Three hundred seven of 338 (90.8%) patients had previously received stavudine and/or zidovudine + lamivudine + efavirenz or nevirapine; 41 of 338 (12.1%) had received tenofovir (TDF). The most common nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutations observed were M184V (301, 89.1%) and K70R (91, 26.9%). The K65R mutation was present in 37 of 338 patients (10.9%). The Q151M (P < 0.05), K219R, and T69del (P < 0.01) mutations were more common in patients with K65R who had not received TDF.


The K65R mutation is increasingly recognized and is a challenging finding among patients with non-B HIV subtypes, whether or not they have been exposed to TDF.

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