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J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2009 Nov;29(11):749-58. doi: 10.1089/jir.2009.0035.

Cardiac function and the proinflammatory cytokine response after recovery from cardiac arrest in swine.

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The David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, University of California-Los Angeles, CA, USA.


Increased levels of cytokines have been reported after resuscitation from cardiac arrest. We hypothesized that proinflammatory cytokines, released in response to ischemia/reperfusion, increase following resuscitation and play a role in post-cardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was induced by coronary occlusion in 20 swine. After 7 min of VF, resuscitation was performed as per guidelines. Plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6 were measured 15 min after the start of resuscitation in all animals and at intervals of 6 h in resuscitated animals. Intravascular pressures and cardiac output (CO) were also recorded. TNF-alpha abruptly increased after resuscitation, peaking at 15 min following return of spontaneous circulation, and declined to baseline levels after 3 h. IL-1beta increased more slowly, reaching a maximum 2 h after reperfusion. IL-6 concentrations were not significantly different from control values at any time point. Males demonstrated greater elevations of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta than females. Stroke work was significantly depressed at all time points with a nadir at 15-30 min after reperfusion, corresponding to the peak TNF-alpha values. The anti-TNF-alpha antibody infliximab attenuated the decrease in myocardial function observed 30 min after reperfusion. TNF-alpha increases during recovery from cardiac arrest are associated with depression of left ventricle (LV) function. The effect of TNF-alpha can be attenuated by anti-TNF-alpha antibodies.

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