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Int J Sports Med. 2009 Oct;30(10):747-53. doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1225340. Epub 2009 Jul 29.

Reliability of measurements with Innocor during exercise.

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Exercise Physiology, Institute of Human Movement Sciences, ETH Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, Zurich 8057, Switzerland.


Cardiac output represents the primary determinant of cardiovascular function. Therefore, understanding how cardiac output is regulated during exercise is crucial. A recently developed tool for determining cardiac output is the Innocor rebreathing system, which also incorporates an ergospirometry unit. So far, Innocor's test-retest reliability under exercise conditions has not been determined in healthy participants. Therefore, 15 male and 15 female healthy participants [30.6 y (SD 4.5); 68.0 kg (SD 10.5)] performed 2 test sessions, each consisting of 2 graded exercise tests to volitional exhaustion. We determined intra- and inter-session reliability of cardiac output, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide output, and ventilation at 130 W and at peak exercise. For cardiac output, we found averaged coefficients of variation ranging from 4.3 (intra-session, 130 W) to 10.0% (inter-session, rest). For oxygen consumption, coefficients of variation ranged from 3.4 (intra-session, peak) to 5.7% (inter-session, peak). Coefficients of variation for carbon dioxide output were between 4.4 (intra-session, peak) and 6.6% (inter-session, peak), and for ventilation between 5.1 (intra-session, 130 W) and 7.0% (intra-session, peak). Innocor delivers safe and reliable measurements of cardiac output, gas exchange, and ventilation. Therefore, Innocor can be used to assess these parameters in exercise physiology studies as well as in performance diagnostics.

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