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J Proteome Res. 2009 Oct;8(10):4579-91. doi: 10.1021/pr900383g.

The cell line secretome, a suitable tool for investigating proteins released in vivo by tumors: application to the study of p53-modulated proteins secreted in lung cancer cells.

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Université Joseph Fourier-Grenoble 1, INSERM, Institut Albert Bonniot U823, Grenoble, France.


Malignant processes such as metastasis, invasion, or angiogenesis are tightly dependent on the composition of the extracellular medium, which is itself affected by the release of proteins by the tumor cells. p53, a major tumor suppressor protein very frequently mutated and/or inactivated in cancer cells, is known to modulate the release of proteins by the tumor cells; however, while p53-modulated intracellular proteins have been extensively studied, little is known concerning their extracellular counterparts. Here, we characterized the p53-dependent secretome of a lung tumor model in vitro (H358 human nonsmall cell lung adenocarcinoma cell line with a homozygous deletion of p53) and demonstrate that the modulation of exported proteins can also be detected in vivo in the plasma of tumor-bearing mice. We used a clone of H358, stably transfected with a tetracycline-inducible wild-type p53-expressing vector. With the use of iTRAQ labeling and LC-MALDI-MS/MS analysis, we identified 909 proteins released in vitro by the cells, among which 91 are p53-modulated. Three proteins (GDF-15, FGF-19, and VEGF) were also investigated in H358/TetOn/p53 xenograft mice. The ELISA dosage on total tumor protein extracts confirmed the influence of p53 on the release of these proteins in vivo. Moreover, the GDF-15 concentration was measured in the plasma and its p53-dependent modulation was confirmed. To our knowledge, this is the first report establishing that the in vitro cell line secretome is reliable and reflects the extracellular release of proteins from tumor cells in vivo and could be used to identify putative tumor markers.

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