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Nano Lett. 2009 Sep;9(9):3318-22. doi: 10.1021/nl901596m.

Electrolyte-gated graphene field-effect transistors for detecting pH and protein adsorption.

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The Institute of the Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047, Japan.


We investigated electrolyte-gated graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) for electrical detecting pH and protein adsorptions. Nonfunctionalized single-layer graphene was used as a channel. GFETs immersed in an electrolyte showed transconductances 30 times higher than those in a vacuum and their conductances exhibited a direct linear increase with electrolyte pH, indicating their potential for use in pH sensor applications. We also attempted to direct surface-protein adsorption and showed that the conductance of GFETs increased with exposure to a protein at several hundred picomolar. The GFETs thus acted as highly sensitive electrical sensors for detecting pH and biomolecule concentrations.

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