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Pediatr Nephrol. 2009 Dec;24(12):2381-6. doi: 10.1007/s00467-009-1255-1. Epub 2009 Jul 28.

Resistance against broad-spectrum beta-lactams among uropathogens in children.

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Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital of Heraklion, POB 1352, Heraklion 71500, Greece.


The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence trends and risk factors for urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by Enterobacteriaceae resistant to broad-spectrum beta-lactams in children. All Enterobacteriaceae uropathogens from children <15 years during the 11-year period 1997-2007 were included, and risk factors were evaluated. Of 523 Enterobacteriaceae isolated from 473 children, 30 (5.73%) were phenotypically resistant to broad-spectrum beta-lactams (18 Escherichia coli, ten Klebsiella spp, one Enterobacter spp, and one Citrobacter spp). The prevalence of resistance increased during the study period (p = 0.031). Resistance to cefoxitin was common (26/30), pointing to AmpC enzyme expression, and 2/30 isolates were resistant to carbapenems. Resistant Enterobacteriaceae were often community acquired (22/30, 73.3%) and related to male gender (p < 0.05), urinary tract abnormalities (p < 0.05), prophylactic antibiotics (p < 0.0001), longer hospitalization (p < 0.001), and UTI recurrences (p < 0.001). Co-resistance was more likely for cotrimoxazole, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, our study points to increasing prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae uropathogens resistant to broad-spectrum beta-lactams in the community setting, which limits the utility of first-line antibiotics and questions the validity of using prophylaxis after a first UTI episode.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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