Send to

Choose Destination
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009 Nov;1794(11):1566-72. doi: 10.1016/j.bbapap.2009.07.007. Epub 2009 Jul 22.

Enhancement of oxidative stability of the subtilisin nattokinase by site-directed mutagenesis expressed in Escherichia coli.

Author information

State Key Laboratory of Virology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, PR China.

Erratum in

  • Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011 Apr;1814(4):523. Zou, GouLin [corrected to Zou, GuoLin].


Nattokinase (subtilisin NAT, NK) is a bacterial serine protease with strong fibrinolytic activity and it is a potent cardiovascular drug. In medical and commercial applications, however, it is susceptible to chemical oxidation, and subsequent inactivation or denaturation. Here we show that the oxidative stability of NK was substantially increased by optimizing the amino acid residues Thr(220) and Met(222), which were in the vicinity of the catalytic residue Ser(221) of the enzyme. Two nonoxidative amino acids (Ser and Ala) were introduced at these sites using site-directed mutagenesis. Active enzymes were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli with periplasmic secretion and enzymes were purified to homogeneity. The purified enzymes were analyzed with respect to oxidative stability, kinetic parameters, fibrinolytic activity and thermal stability. M222A mutant was found to have a greatly increased oxidative stability compared with wild-type enzyme and it was resistant to inactivation by more than 1 M H(2)O(2), whereas the wild-type enzyme was inactivated by 0.1 M H(2)O(2) (t(1/2) approximately 11.6 min). The other mutant (T220S) also showed an obvious increase in antioxidative ability. Molecular dynamic simulations on wild-type and T220S mutant proteins suggested that a hydrogen bond was formed between Ser(220) and Asn(155), and the spatial structure of Met(222) was changed compared with the wild-type. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of improving oxidative stability of NK by site-directed mutagenesis and shows successful protein engineering cases to improve stability of NK as a potent therapeutic agent.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center