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Orthod Craniofac Res. 2009 Aug;12(3):243-53. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-6343.2009.01459.x.

Enamel matrix proteins; old molecules for new applications.

Author information

1
Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. spl@odont.uio.no

Abstract

Emdogain (enamel matrix derivative, EMD) is well recognized in periodontology, where it is used as a local adjunct to periodontal surgery to stimulate regeneration of periodontal tissues lost to periodontal disease. The biological effect of EMD is through stimulation of local growth factor secretion and cytokine expression in the treated tissues, inducing a regenerative process that mimics odontogenesis. The major (>95%) component of EMD is Amelogenins (Amel). No other active components have so far been isolated from EMD, and several studies have shown that purified amelogenins can induce the same effect as the complete EMD. Amelogenins comprise a family of highly conserved extracellular matrix proteins derived from one gene. Amelogenin structure and function is evolutionary well conserved, suggesting a profound role in biomineralization and hard tissue formation. A special feature of amelogenins is that under physiological conditions the proteins self-assembles into nanospheres that constitute an extracellular matrix. In the body, this matrix is slowly digested by specific extracellular proteolytic enzymes (matrix metalloproteinase) in a controlled process, releasing bioactive peptides to the surrounding tissues for weeks after application. Based on clinical and experimental observations in periodontology indicating that amelogenins can have a significant positive influence on wound healing, bone formation and root resorption, several new applications for amelogenins have been suggested. New experiments now confirm that amelogenins have potential for being used also in the fields of endodontics, bone regeneration, implantology, traumatology, and wound care.

PMID:
19627527
PMCID:
PMC2825346
DOI:
10.1111/j.1601-6343.2009.01459.x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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