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Cell Cycle. 2009 Aug 15;8(16):2518-22. Epub 2009 Aug 29.

The Par-4/PTEN connection in tumor suppression.

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  • 1Department of Cancer and Cell Biology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA.


Tumor suppressors function in a coordinated regulatory network, and their inactivation is a key step in carcinogenesis. The tumor suppressor Par-4 is a novel integral player in the PTEN network. Thus, Par-4 is absent in a high percentage of human prostate carcinomas, and its loss is concomitantly associated with PTEN loss. Genetic ablation of Par-4 induces fully invasive prostate carcinomas in PTEN-heterozygous mice. In contrast, Par-4 deficiency alone, like PTEN heterozygosis, results in lesions that are unable to progress beyond the benign neoplastic stage known as PIN. At this PIN transition, the mutual induction of Par-4 and PTEN is an additional regulatory step in preventing cancer progression. Par-4 deficiency cooperates with PTEN haploinsufficiency in prostate cancer initiation and progression and their simultaneous inactivation, in addition to enhancing Akt activation, sets in motion a unique mechanism involving the synergistic activation of NFkappaB. These results suggest that the concurrent interruption of complementary signaling pathways targeting PI3K/Akt and NFkappaB activation could provide new and effective strategies for cancer therapy.

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