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J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009 Sep;64(3):625-9. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkp251. Epub 2009 Jul 21.

Incidence of candidaemia and relationship with fluconazole use in an intensive care unit.

Author information

1
Infectious Diseases Division, San Martino Hospital and University of Genoa School of Medicine, Genoa, Italy.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Candida spp. are the most important non-bacterial pathogens in critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate trends in the incidence of candidaemia and the distribution of Candida albicans and non-albicans over a 9 year period (1999-2007), and to assess their relationship with fluconazole use.

METHODS:

This was an interventional cross-over study. Patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) who developed a clinically and microbiologically documented candidaemia were analysed. Fluconazole was used as prophylaxis in critically ill patients until 2002; from January 2003 infectious disease consultants strongly discouraged its use. Fluconazole use, measured as defined daily dose per 1000 patient-days, was calculated. The main outcome of the study is the evaluation of the restriction policy in terms of change in fluconazole use and in incidence of candidaemia.

RESULTS:

During the 108 month period (January 1999-December 2007), a total of 213 episodes of candidaemia (average incidence 1.42 episodes/10 000 patient-days/year, range 0.36-3.02 episodes) were recorded in a mixed medical and surgical ICU in Italy. C. albicans was the most prevalent isolated species (n = 98, 46%); non-albicans (n = 115, 54%) were mainly represented by Candida parapsilosis (n = 46, 22%) and by Candida glabrata (n = 28, 13%). Segmented regression analysis of the interrupted time series showed that a change in the fluconazole prophylactic strategy resulted in a significant reduction in fluconazole use from the second semester of 2002. A dramatic decrease in the incidence of fungaemia due to C. non-albicans was observed from the second semester of 2003 (intervention effect in the second semester of 2007: -2.31/10 000 patient-days); minor changes in the incidence of C. albicans fungaemia emerged (intervention effect in the second semester of 2007: -0.23/10 000 patient-days).

CONCLUSIONS:

The study showed a clear correlation between fluconazole use control and decreasing incidence of non-albicans candidaemia. Even if fluconazole remains a first-line treatment option in several cases of invasive candidiasis, its prophylactic use should be carefully evaluated.

PMID:
19622536
DOI:
10.1093/jac/dkp251
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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