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Hum Reprod. 2009 Nov;24(11):2703-8. doi: 10.1093/humrep/dep240. Epub 2009 Jul 17.

Use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for the treatment of unexplained recurrent miscarriage: a randomised controlled trial.

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Hungaria Center for Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, 00198 Rome, Italy.



Recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as the occurrence of three or more clinically detectable pregnancy losses in the first trimester. In most cases of RM, its aetiology remains unexplained. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), a cytokine, and its receptor are expressed in placental tissue. To investigate the effectiveness of G-CSF in preventing embryo demise, we administered G-CSF to women with RM.


A randomised controlled trial in women with RM treated with G-CSF or placebo was conducted in one private reproductive medicine clinic. Sixty-eight women with unexplained primary RM, all with at least four consecutive miscarriages and negative for all clinical investigations, were selected. Patients were randomized for s.c. treatment with G-CSF (n = 35) (1 microg/kg/day) starting on the sixth day after ovulation, or with placebo (n = 33). Patients were randomized using a computer-generated randomization number sequence. Pregnancy outcome (delivery of a healthy baby without major or minor malformations) was the primary outcome measure. RESULTS In the group treated with G-CSF, 29 out of 35 (82.8%) women delivered a healthy baby, whereas in the placebo group, this figure was only 16 out of 33 (48.5%) (P = 0.0061, odds ratio = 5.1; 95% confidence interval 1.5-18.4). Significantly higher beta-hCG levels were found in gestation weeks 5-9 in women treated with G-CSF versus placebo (P < 0.001).


Our data show that G-CSF may be effective in the treatment of unexplained RM. However, further studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of this treatment in women with unexplained RM, refractory to conventional treatment. The study was registered with a ICMJE recognized registry, the Clinical Protocol Registry System, with the number NCT00772122.

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