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J Hazard Mater. 2009 Nov 15;171(1-3):1088-95. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.06.109. Epub 2009 Jun 27.

Assessment of metals in water and sediments of Hindon River, India: impact of industrial and urban discharges.

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Department of Civil Engineering, Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016, India.


The aim of this study was to assess the level of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and Pb) in water and sediments of Hindon River in industrialized city Ghaziabad, India. A total of 6 stations, covering the upstream and downstream sites of Hindon, were selected for this study. Metal concentration (mgkg(-1)) ranged: Cd, 1.15-3.47; Cu, 9.42-195.1; Cr, 42.9-250.4; Fe, 221.2-237.9; Mn, 61.0-201.7; Zn, 3.98-85.0; and Pb, 5.07-59.1 in river sediments. The enrichment factor (%) for sediment ranged from 0.05 to 99.8% at point and non-point polluted stations of Hindon. The geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) suggested "unpolluted to moderate pollution" of Mn, Pb and Zn (I(geo)<1), "moderate pollution" of Cu, Cr, Fe (I(geo)<2), and "very strong pollution" of Cd (I(geo)>5) in River Hindon at Ghaziabad city. The industrial and urban discharges in river catchment areas were the major sources of heavy metals in river.

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