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Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Sep 25;387(3):581-4. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.07.061. Epub 2009 Jul 16.

3',5'-Cyclic diguanylic acid elicits mucosal immunity against bacterial infection.

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Department of Chemistry, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada.


3',5'-Cyclic diguanylic acid (cdiGMP) is emerging as a universal bacterial second messenger in regulating bacterial growth on surfaces. It has been recently shown that cdiGMP stimulates innate immunity and enhances antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. We herein report that intranasal (i.n.) administration with cdiGMP induces an acute but transient inflammatory response and activation of dendritic cells in the lungs. Moreover, i.n. immunization of mice with pneumococcal surface adhesion A (PsaA) in conjunction with cdiGMP elicited strong antigen-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and secretory IgA antibody responses at multiple mucosal surfaces. More importantly, the immunized mice showed significantly reduced nasopharyngeal Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization. These results, for the first time, provide direct evidence for the induction of protection against mucosal bacterial infections by cdiGMP as an adjuvant.

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