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J Oral Pathol Med. 2009 Sep;38(8):613-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0714.2009.00789.x. Epub 2009 Jul 15.

Oral manifestations in human immunodeficiency virus infected children in highly active antiretroviral therapy era.

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Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brigadeiro, Trompowsky Avenue, Rio de Janeiro 21941-590, Brazil.



Conducted a literature review to identify studies that reported on the oral manifestations in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children in highly active antiretrovial therapy (HAART) era.


A search electronic data base were used and the terms used were 'oral lesions' and 'oral manifestations'. The studies of prevalence of oral manifestation in children with HIV worldwide, descriptive studies, case reports, studies on the association of oral lesions and levels of immune suppression, use of HAART and transmission of HIV were included.


There have been substantial changes in the management of HIV disease, especially in the past decade because of the use of HAART. However, children are still being infected and present some peculiarities when compared with adults. Molecular epidemiology, transmission and therapy of the common opportunistic oral infections of HIV disease need to be better understood as a consequence of improved anti-HIV strategies. Treatment with HAART improves the immune function and decreases mortality, morbidity, and opportunistic infections in HIV-infected persons.


The frequency and severity of oral disease associated with HIV infection have reduced considerably, although the use of HAART may be associated with an increased appearance of oral lesions associated with human papillomavirus and potentially increase the risk of later oral squamous cell carcinoma.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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