Send to

Choose Destination
Nat Rev Microbiol. 2009 Aug;7(8):578-88. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro2174.

Bacterial gene amplification: implications for the evolution of antibiotic resistance.

Author information

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, BOX 582, Uppsala, S751 23, Sweden.


Recent data suggest that, in response to the presence of antibiotics, gene duplication and amplification (GDA) constitutes an important adaptive mechanism in bacteria. For example, resistance to sulphonamide, trimethoprim and beta-lactams can be conferred by increased gene dosage through GDA of antibiotic hydrolytic enzymes, target enzymes or efflux pumps. Furthermore, most types of antibiotic resistance mechanism are deleterious in the absence of antibiotics, and these fitness costs can be ameliorated by increased gene dosage of limiting functions. In this Review, we highlight the dynamic properties of gene amplifications and describe how they can facilitate adaptive evolution in response to toxic drugs.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group
Loading ...
Support Center