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Vaccine. 2009 Aug 27;27(39):5344-8. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.06.084. Epub 2009 Jul 14.

Contrasting effects of type I interferon as a mucosal adjuvant for influenza vaccine in mice and humans.

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Department of Molecular Virology & Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, MS BCM 280, Houston, TX, USA.


To identify an adjuvant that enhances antibody responses in respiratory secretions to inactivated influenza virus vaccine (IVV), a comparison was made of responses to intranasal vaccinations of mice with IVV containing monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), type I interferon (IFN) or cholera toxin B (CTB). Antibody in nasal secretions and lung wash fluids from mice was increased after vaccination and lung virus was significantly reduced after challenge to a similar level in each adjuvant group. Interferon was selected for a trial in humans. Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine was given intranasally to healthy adult volunteers alone or with 1 million units (Mu) or 10 Mu of alpha interferon. Vaccinations were well tolerated but neither serum hemagglutination-inhibiting nor neutralizing antibody responses among the vaccine groups were significantly different. Similarly, neither neutralizing nor IgA antibody responses in nasal secretions were significantly different. Thus, despite exhibiting a significant adjuvant effect in mice, interferon did not exhibit an adjuvant effect for induction of antibody in respiratory secretions of humans to inactivated influenza virus vaccine given intranasally.

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