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Environ Sci Technol. 2009 Jun 15;43(12):4227-33.

Estimates of upper bounds and trends in nano-TiO2 production as a basis for exposure assessment.

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Duke University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, P.O. Box 90287, Durham, North Carolina 27708-0287, USA.


An upper bound is estimated for the magnitude of potential exposure to nano-TiO2 with the purpose of enabling exposure assessment and, ultimately, risk assessment Knowledge of the existing bulk TiO2 market is combined with available nano-TiO2 production data to estimate current nano-TiO2 sources as a baseline. The evolution of nano-TiO2 production as a percentage of the total TiO2 market is then projected based on material and market information along with a method that combines observations from scientific articles and patents as predictive indicators of the rate of innovative transformation.

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