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Anesthesiology. 2009 Aug;111(2):311-9. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181aaeb11.

Prognostic value of brain natriuretic peptide in noncardiac surgery: a meta-analysis.

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Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Norwich, Norfolk, United Kingdom.



The prognostic role of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) measurement before noncardiac surgery is unclear. The authors therefore performed a meta-analysis of studies in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery to assess the prognostic value of elevated BNP or N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP) levels in predicting mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (cardiac death or nonfatal myocardial infarction).


Unrestricted searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE bibliographic databases were performed using the terms "brain natriuretic peptide," "b-type natriuretic peptide," "BNP," "NT-proBNP," and "surgery." In addition, review articles, bibliographies, and abstracts of scientific meetings were manually searched. The meta-analysis included prospective studies that reported on the association of BNP or NT-proBNP and postoperative major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) or mortality. The study endpoints were MACE, all-cause mortality, and cardiac mortality at short-term (less than 43 days after surgery) and longer-term (more than 6 months) follow-up. A random-effects model was used to pool study results; funnel-plot inspection was done to evaluate publication bias; Cochrane chi-square test and I testing was used to test for heterogeneity.


Data from 15 publications (4,856 patients) were included in the analysis. Preoperative BNP elevation was associated with an increased risk of short-term MACE (OR 19.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] 13.18-29.65; P < 0.0001), all-cause mortality (OR 9.28; 95% CI 3.51-24.56; P < 0.0001), and cardiac death (OR 23.88; 95% CI 9.43-60.43; P < 0.00001). Results were consistent for both BNP and NT-proBNP. Preoperative BNP elevation was also associated with an increased risk of long-term MACE (OR 17.70; 95% CI 3.11-100.80; P < 0.0001) and all-cause mortality (OR 4.77; 95% CI 2.99-7.46; P < 0.00001).


Elevated BNP and NT-proBNP levels identify patients undergoing major noncardiac surgery at high risk of cardiac mortality, all-cause mortality, and MACE.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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