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Oncogene. 2009 Sep 24;28(38):3390-400. doi: 10.1038/onc.2009.203. Epub 2009 Jul 13.

Lysyl oxidase propeptide inhibits prostate cancer cell growth by mechanisms that target FGF-2-cell binding and signaling.

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Department of Periodontology and Oral Biology, Boston University Henry M Goldman School of Dental Medicine, MA 02118, USA.


Enhanced RAS signaling and decreased androgen dependence of prostate cancer cells accompany poor clinical outcomes. Elevated autocrine fibroblast growth factors 2 (FGF-2) signaling promotes prostate cancer cell growth and survival. Expression of lysyl oxidase (LOX) inhibits RAS transforming activity. LOX is secreted as 50 kDa pro-LOX protein and then undergoes extracellular proteolytic processing to form approximately 30 kDa LOX enzyme and approximately 18 kDa propeptide (LOX-PP). We have previously shown that LOX-PP inhibits breast cancer cell transformation and tumor formation, but mechanisms of action of LOX-PP have not been fully elucidated. Here we report that LOX expression is reduced in prostate cancer cell lines and that recombinant LOX-PP protein inhibits serum-stimulated DNA synthesis and MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways in DU 145 and PC-3 androgen-independent cell lines. In DU 145 cells, treatment with a pharmacologic FGF-receptor inhibitor or a neutralizing anti-FGFR1 antibody mimicked LOX-PP inhibition of serum-stimulated DNA synthesis. FGF-2-stimulated DNA synthesis, ERK1/2, AKT and FRS2alpha activation were found all to be inhibited by LOX-PP in DU 145 cells. LOX-PP reduced specific binding of FGF-2 to DU 145 cells, suggesting that LOX-PP targets FGF signaling at the receptor. Interestingly, PC-3 cells did not respond to FGF-2, consistent with previous reports. We conclude that LOX-PP inhibits proliferation of DU 145 cells by interfering with FGFR(s) binding and signaling, and that LOX-PP has other mechanisms of action in PC-3 cells.

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