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J Appl Psychol. 2009 Jul;94(4):1086-94. doi: 10.1037/a0015599.

How do feelings influence effort? An empirical study of entrepreneurs' affect and venture effort.

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Leeds School of Business, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA.


How do feelings influence the effort of entrepreneurs? To obtain data on this issue, the authors implemented experience sampling methodology in which 46 entrepreneurs used cell phones to provide reports on their affect, future temporal focus, and venture effort twice daily for 24 days. Drawing on the affect-as-information theory, the study found that entrepreneurs' negative affect directly predicts entrepreneurs' effort toward tasks that are required immediately. Results were consistent for within-day and next-day time lags. Extending the theory, the study found that positive affect predicts venture effort beyond what is immediately required and that this relationship is mediated by future temporal focus. The mediating effects were significant only for next-day outcomes. Implications of findings on the nature of the affect-effort relationship for different time lags are discussed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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