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Immunity. 2009 Jul 17;31(1):72-83. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2009.04.017.

Deltex1 is a target of the transcription factor NFAT that promotes T cell anergy.

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Graduate Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan, ROC.


The molecular process underlying T cell anergy is incompletely understood. Deltex1 (DTX1) is a Notch target with unknown physiological function. Here we show that Dtx1 was a transcription target of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and participated in T cell anergy. DTX1 protein was upregulated during T cell anergy, and transgenic expression of Dtx1 attenuated T cell activation. DTX1 inhibited T cell activation by both E3-dependent and E3-independent mechanisms. In addition, DTX1 suppressed T cell activation in the absence of its Notch-binding domain. Importantly, DTX1 regulated the expression of two anergy-associated molecules, growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible 45 beta (Gadd45 beta) and Cbl-b. DTX1 interacted with early growth response 2 (Egr-2) for optimum expression of Cbl-b. Furthermore, deficiency of DTX1 augmented T cell activation, conferred resistance to anergy induction, enhanced autoantibody generation, and increased inflammation. DTX1 therefore represents a component downstream of calcium-NFAT signaling that regulates T cell anergy.

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