Send to

Choose Destination
Dermatology. 2009;219(4):295-8. doi: 10.1159/000228329. Epub 2009 Jul 8.

Prevalence of body dysmorphic features in patients undergoing cosmetic procedures at the National Skin Centre, Singapore.

Author information

National Skin Centre, 1, Mandalay Road, 308205 Singapore.



Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterised by an obsessive preoccupation with a slight defect in appearance, and recognition is essential.


To screen by a previously developed questionnaire the prevalence of BDD in an aesthetics clinic in Singapore. This questionnaire has a positive predictive value of 70% and a negative predictive value of 100%; patients answering that they were preoccupied with their appearance and having answered 'yes' in part A, answered 8 further questions (part B) grading the degree of distress (B4) and impairment (B5) of social functioning.


The questionnaire was given to 396 patients: 198 attending Mandalay Aesthetics Clinic and 198 controls at a general outpatient clinic. The screen was considered suggestive of BDD if the patients: were preoccupied by their defect (question A) and qualified the degree of stress (question B4) or impairment of functioning (question B5) as moderate to severe.


58.1% of patients undergoing cosmetic procedures answered 'yes' to question A (odds ratio = 18.21, 95% confidence interval = 9.87-33.59). 41.74 and 26.96% of those qualified the distress (question B4) and impairment (question B5) as moderate to severe.


A calculated prevalence of 29.4% in an aesthetics centre warrants systematic screening for BDD.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for S. Karger AG, Basel, Switzerland
Loading ...
Support Center