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Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Jul 15;15(14):4665-73. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-0401. Epub 2009 Jul 7.

Relationship of CDX2 loss with molecular features and prognosis in colorectal cancer.

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Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.



The homeodomain transcription factor CDX2 is a relatively specific immunohistochemical marker for gastrointestinal carcinoma. However, no study has comprehensively examined the relationship between CDX2 expression in colon cancer and clinical, pathologic, prognostic, and molecular features, including microsatellite instability and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP).


Utilizing 621 colorectal cancers with clinical outcome and molecular data, CDX2 loss was detected in 183 (29%) tumors by immunohistochemistry.


In multivariate logistic regression analysis, CDX2 loss was associated with female gender [odds ratio (OR), 3.32; P < 0.0001], CIMP-high (OR, 4.42; P = 0.0003), high tumor grade (OR, 2.69; P = 0.0085), stage IV disease (OR, 2.03; P = 0.019), and inversely with LINE-1 hypomethylation (for a 30% decline; OR, 0.33; P = 0.0031), p53 expression (OR, 0.55; P = 0.011), and beta-catenin activation (OR, 0.60; P = 0.037), but not with body mass index, tumor location, microsatellite instability, BRAF, KRAS, PIK3CA, p21, or cyclooxygenase-2. CDX2 loss was not independently associated with patient survival. However, the prognostic effect of CDX2 loss seemed to differ according to family history of colorectal cancer (P(interaction) = 0.0094). CDX2 loss was associated with high overall mortality (multivariate hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.28-4.51) among patients with a family history of colorectal cancer; no such association was present (multivariate hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.66-1.41) among patients without a family history of colorectal cancer.


CDX2 loss in colorectal cancer is independently associated with female gender, CIMP-high, high-level LINE-1 methylation, high tumor grade, and advanced stage. CDX2 loss may be associated with poor prognosis among patients with a family history of colorectal cancer.

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