Send to

Choose Destination
Malar J. 2009 Jul 6;8:149. doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-149.

Comparative evaluation of four mosquitoes sampling methods in rice irrigation schemes of lower Moshi, northern Tanzania.

Author information

Division of livestock and human disease vector control, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute, Arusha, Tanzania.



Adult malaria vector sampling is the most important parameter for setting up an intervention and understanding disease dynamics in malaria endemic areas. The intervention will ideally be species-specific according to sampling output. It was the objective of this study to evaluate four sampling techniques, namely human landing catch, pit shelter, indoor resting collection and odour-baited entry trap.


These four sampling methods were evaluated simultaneously for thirty days during October 2008, a season of low mosquitoes density and malaria transmission. These trapping methods were performed in one village for maximizing homogeneity in mosquito density. The cattle and man used in odour-baited entry trap were rotated between the chambers to avoid bias.


A total of 3,074 mosquitoes were collected. Among these 1,780 (57.9%) were Anopheles arabiensis and 1,294 (42.1%) were Culex quinquefasciatus. Each trap sampled different number of mosquitoes, Indoor resting collection collected 335 (10.9%), Odour-baited entry trap-cow 1,404 (45.7%), Odour-baited entry trap-human 378 (12.3%), Pit shelter 562 (18.3%) and HLC 395 (12.8%). General linear model univariate analysis method was used, position of the trapping method had no effect on mosquito density catch (DF = 4, F = 35.596, P = 0.78). Days variation had no effect on the collected density too (DF = 29, F = 4.789, P = 0.09). The sampling techniques had significant impact on the caught mosquito densities (DF = 4, F = 34.636, P < 0.0001). The Wilcoxon pair-wise comparison between mosquitoes collected in human landing catch and pit shelter was significant (Z = -3.849, P < 0.0001), human landing catch versus Indoor resting collection was not significant (Z = -0.502, P = 0.615), human landing catch versus odour-baited entry trap-man was significant (Z = -2.687, P = 0.007), human landing catch versus odour-baited entry trap-cow was significant (Z = -3.127, P = 0.002).


Odour-baited traps with different baits and pit shelter have shown high productivity in collecting higher densities of mosquitoes than human landing catch. These abilities are the possibilities of replacing the human landing catch practices for sampling malaria vectors in areas with An. arabiensis as malaria vectors. Further evaluations of these sampling methods need to be investigated is other areas with different species.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for BioMed Central Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center