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Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2009;25:539-66. doi: 10.1146/annurev.cellbio.24.110707.175344.

Coordination of lipid metabolism in membrane biogenesis.

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Molecular and Metabolic Signalling Centre, Division of Basic Medical Sciences, St. George's University of London, London, SW17 0RE United Kingdom.


Bilayer synthesis during membrane biogenesis involves the concerted assembly of multiple lipid species, requiring coordination of the level of lipid synthesis, uptake, turnover, and subcellular distribution. In this review, we discuss some of the salient conclusions regarding the coordination of lipid synthesis that have emerged from work in mammalian and yeast cells. The principal instruments of global control are a small number of transcription factors that target a wide range of genes encoding enzymes that operate in a given metabolic pathway. Critical in mammalian cells are sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) that stimulate expression of genes for the uptake and synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids. From work with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, much has been learned about glycerophospholipid and ergosterol regulation through Ino2p/Ino4p and Upc2p transcription factors, respectively. Lipid supply is fine-tuned through a multitude of negative feedback circuits initiated by both end products and intermediates of lipid synthesis pathways. Moreover, there is evidence that the diversity of membrane lipids is maintained through cross-regulatory effects, whereby classes of lipids activate the activity of enzymes operating in another metabolic branch.

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