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Annu Rev Plant Biol. 2009;60:239-60. doi: 10.1146/annurev.arplant.58.032806.103844.

Sensing and responding to excess light.

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Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.


Plants and algae often absorb too much light-more than they can actually use in photosynthesis. To prevent photo-oxidative damage and to acclimate to changes in their environment, photosynthetic organisms have evolved direct and indirect mechanisms for sensing and responding to excess light. Photoreceptors such as phototropin, neochrome, and cryptochrome can sense excess light directly and relay signals for chloroplast movement and gene expression responses. Indirect sensing of excess light through biochemical and metabolic signals can be transduced into local responses within chloroplasts, into changes in nuclear gene expression via retrograde signaling pathways, or even into systemic responses, all of which are associated with photoacclimation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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