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Biomarkers. 2009 Sep;14(6):423-31. doi: 10.1080/13547500903067744.

Comparative analysis of urinary biomarkers for early detection of acute kidney injury following cardiopulmonary bypass.

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Division of Nephrology, Caritas St Elizabeth's Medical Center, Boston, MA 02135, USA.


The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of six candidate urinary biomarkers, kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), interleukin (IL)-18, cystatin C and alpha-1 microglobulin, measured 2 h following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for the early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI) in a prospective cohort of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A total of 103 subjects were enrolled; AKI developed in 13%. Urinary KIM-1 achieved the highest area under-the-receiver-operator-characteristic curve (AUC 0.78, 95% confidence interval 0.64-0.91), followed by IL-18 and NAG. Only urinary KIM-1 remained independently associated with AKI after adjustment for a preoperative AKI prediction score (Cleveland Clinic Foundation score; p = 0.02), or CPB perfusion time (p = 0.006). In this small pilot cohort, KIM-1 performed best as an early biomarker for AKI. Larger studies are needed to explore further the role of biomarkers for early detection of AKI following cardiac surgery.

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