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Biol Reprod. 2009 Nov;81(5):906-20. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod.109.078139. Epub 2009 Jul 1.

Characterization of conserved and nonconserved imprinted genes in swine.

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Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Center for Comparative Medicine and Translational Research, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27606, USA.


To increase our understanding of imprinted genes in swine, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of this gene family using two complementary approaches: expression and phenotypic profiling of parthenogenetic fetuses, and analysis of imprinting by pyrosequencing. The parthenote placenta and fetus were smaller than those of controls but had no obvious morphological differences at Day 28 of gestation. By Day 30, however, the parthenote placentas had decreased chorioallantoic folding, decreased chorionic ruggae, and reduction of fetal-maternal interface surface in comparison with stage-matched control fetuses. Using Affymetrix Porcine GeneChip microarrays and/or semiquantitative PCR, brain, fibroblast, liver, and placenta of Day 30 fetuses were profiled, and 25 imprinted genes were identified as differentially expressed in at least one of the four tissue types: AMPD3, CDKN1C, COPG2, DHCR7, DIRAS3, IGF2 (isoform specific), IGF2AS, IGF2R, MEG3, MEST, NAP1L5, NDN, NNAT, OSBPL1A, PEG3, APEG3, PEG10, PLAGL1, PON2, PPP1R9A, SGCE, SLC38A4, SNORD107, SNRPN, and TFPI2. For DIRAS3, PLAGL1, SGCE, and SLC38A4, tissue-specific differences were detected. In addition, we examined the imprinting status of candidate genes by quantitative allelic pyrosequencing. Samples were collected from Day 30 pregnancies generated from reciprocal crosses of Meishan and White Composite breeds, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in candidate genes. Imprinting was confirmed for DIRAS3, DLK1, H19, IGF2AS, NNAT, MEST, PEG10, PHLDA2, PLAGL1, SGCE, and SNORD107. We also found no evidence of imprinting in ASB4, ASCL2, CD81, COMMD1, DCN, DLX5, and H13. Combined, these results represent the most comprehensive survey of imprinted genes in swine to date.

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