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J Hazard Mater. 2009 Nov 15;171(1-3):318-22. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.06.004. Epub 2009 Jun 10.

Continuous flow photocatalytic treatment integrated with separation of titanium dioxide on the removal of phenol in tap water.

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  • 1Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, Jakarta, Indonesia.


We studied the continuous flow photocatalytic treatment integrated with separation/reuse of titanium dioxide on the removal of phenol (20 mg l(-1)) in electrolytes containing tap water. A circulative flow tubular photoreactor and a separation tank were used, where inflow of phenol continuously flowed into a mixing tank (for titanium dioxide suspension) and treated water overflowed from the separation tank. Black light and sunlight were used by turns as the light source on the photocatalytic treatment. Photocatalytic removal of phenol was maximum at the circulative flow rate of 600 ml min(-1) and the transmittance of 0.3%. Integration of circulative photocatalytic treatment and titanium dioxide separation and continuous use of titanium dioxide could be performed effectively at low inflow of 10 ml min(-1). The titanium dioxide slurry sedimented spontaneously by standing was continuously used for at least 72 h without decreasing the efficiency of the photocatalytic treatment. The used titanium dioxide can be replaced with a fresh one by draw and fill method without interrupting the treatment.

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