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J Pediatr Orthop. 2009 Jul-Aug;29(5):435-8. doi: 10.1097/BPO.0b013e3181aa21ab.

Fractures and amputations in children and adolescents requiring hospitalization after farm equipment injuries.

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Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.

Erratum in

  • J Pediatr Orthop. 2010 Dec;30(8):944.



The majority of farm-related injuries in children are caused by farm machinery. The aim of this study is to report the incidence of children requiring hospitalization for orthopaedic trauma after injury secondary to farm equipment accidents.


Data for this study were culled from the Kids' Inpatient Database for the years 2000, 2003, and 2006 using the E-code for injuries caused by agricultural machinery to identify the study group. Only those children with fractures (nonskull) and/or amputations were included for analysis.


The 3-year study data include 292 children, 88% male, with an average age of 11.9 years. Of the 439 orthopaedic injuries, there were 115 upper extremity, 173 lower extremity, and 96 vertebral, rib, or pelvic fractures, and 55 amputations (34 upper and 21 lower extremity). There were proportionally more closed fractures of the upper extremity in children under the age of 12 years compared with the older children with no difference in rates of other fractures or amputation by age group.


This study provides data on incidence of significant orthopaedic trauma in children in the United States as a result of farm equipment accidents. Most earlier studies have focused on fatality rates or have been limited to a single institution or single state or have been from a non-US population. This study provides pediatric orthopaedists, particularly those practicing in agricultural areas, with injury statistics related to farm equipment injuries that may lead to more and better safety education programs.

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