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Pediatrics. 2009 Jul;124(1):1-8. doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-0730.

Treatment of Kawasaki disease: analysis of 27 US pediatric hospitals from 2001 to 2006.

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Department of Medicine and cCardiology, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.



We sought to analyze trends in admissions and to describe therapies used for acute Kawasaki disease over a 6-year period.


The Pediatric Health Information System provides patient data including demographic variables, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes, and services billed to patients. Patient identifiers enable tracking of medication use in and across multiple admissions within a center. We analyzed data for patients with (1) a diagnosis code for Kawasaki disease, (2) intravenously administered immunoglobulin treatment during hospitalization, and (3) discharge between January 1, 2001, and December 30, 2006, from 27 hospitals contributing complete data over the study period.


During the study period, 5197 Kawasaki disease admissions were identified for 4811 patients; numbers increased 32.6% from 2001 (n = 678) to 2006 (n = 899). Retreatment with intravenous immunoglobulin was administered to 712 patients (14.8%) over the study period. Other antiinflammatory therapies included intravenously administered methylprednisolone (5.8%), orally administered prednisone (2.8%), and infliximab (1%). Use of infliximab steadily increased from 0.0% (0 of 678 patients) in 2001 to 2.3% (21 of 899 patients) in 2006. Coronary artery aneurysms were coded for 3.3% of patients. Male patients, patients <1 year of age, and Hispanic patients were significantly more likely to have coding for coronary artery aneurysms.


Our report provides the first large multicenter description of agents used in the treatment of intravenously administered immunoglobulin-resistant Kawasaki disease in the United States. Trends include increased numbers of admissions attributable to Kawasaki disease and increased usage of infliximab.

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