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West J Emerg Med. 2007 Aug;8(3):79-83.

A Prospective, Randomized Trial in the Emergency Department of Suggestive Audio-Therapy under Deep Sedation for Smoking Cessation.

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Department of Emergency Services, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.



In a sample of patients undergoing procedural deep sedation in the emergency department (ED), we conducted a prospective, randomized, single-blinded trial of audio-therapy for smoking cessation.


We asked subjects about their smoking, including desire to quit (0-10 numerical scale) and number of cigarettes smoked per day. Subjects were randomized to either a control tape (music alone) or a tape with repeated smoking-cessation messages over music. Tapes were started with first doses of sedation and stopped with patient arousal. Telephone follow-up occurred between two weeks and three months to assess the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Study endpoints were self-reported complete cessation and decrease of half or more in total cigarettes smoked per day.


One hundred eleven patients were enrolled in the study, 54 to intervention and 57 to control. Mean desire to quit was 7.15 +/- 2.6 and mean cigarettes per day was 17.5 +/- 12.1. We successfully contacted 69 (62%) patients. Twenty-seven percent of intervention and 26% of control patients quit (mean difference = 1%; 95% CI: -22.0% to 18.8%). Thirty-seven percent of intervention and 51% of control patients decreased smoking by half or more (mean difference = 14.6%; 95% CI: -8.7% to 35.6%).


Suggestive audio-therapy delivered during deep sedation in the ED did not significantly decrease self-reported smoking behavior.


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