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J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009 Sep;330(3):756-63. doi: 10.1124/jpet.109.155762. Epub 2009 Jun 26.

In vivo up-regulation of kinin B1 receptors after treatment with Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide in rat paw.

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Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Ipiranga, 6681, Partenon, 90619-900, Porto Alegre, Brazil.


It has been demonstrated that kinin B(1) receptors are highly up-regulated under several stressful stimuli, such as infection. However, there is no evidence indicating whether Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (Pg-LPS) might lead to B(1) receptor up-regulation. In this study, we demonstrate that Pg-LPS injection into the rat paw resulted in a marked functional up-regulation of B(1) receptors (as measured by an increase of B(1) receptor-induced edema), which was preceded by a rapid rise in B(1) receptor mRNA expression. The local administration of Pg-LPS also resulted in a prominent production of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), followed by an increase of neutrophil influx; both events were observed at periods before B(1) receptor induction. The functional and molecular Pg-LPS-elicited B(1) receptor up-regulation was significantly reduced by the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg s.c.), and to a lesser extent by the chimeric anti-TNF-alpha antibody infliximab (1 mg/kg s.c.). Of high relevance, we show for the first time that a single administration of the proresolution lipid mediator (5S,12R,18R)-trihydroxy-6Z,8E,10E,14Z,16E-eicosapentaenoic acid (resolvin E1; 300 ng/rat i.p.) was able to markedly down-regulate Pg-LPS-driven B(1) receptor expression, probably by inhibiting TNF-alpha production and neutrophil migration. Collectively, the present findings clearly suggest that Pg-LPS is able to induce the up-regulation of B(1) receptors through mechanisms involving TNF-alpha release and neutrophil influx, which are largely sensitive to resolvin E1. It is tempting to suggest that kinin B(1) receptors might well represent a pivotal pathway for the inflammatory responses evoked by P. gingivalis and its virulence factors.

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