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Cytokine. 2009 Aug;47(2):137-42. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2009.06.001. Epub 2009 Jun 27.

Grape-seed procyanidins modulate inflammation on human differentiated adipocytes in vitro.

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Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERDEM), University Hospital of Tarragona, Joan XXIII, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain.


Flavonoids are functional constituents of many fruits and vegetables. Procyanidins are flavonoids with an oligomeric structure, and it has been shown that they can improve the pathological oxidative state of a diabetic situation. To evaluate whether procyanidins can modulate inflammation, an event strongly associated with obesity, diabetes and insulin resistance states, we used human adipocytes (SGBS) and macrophage-like (THP-1) cell lines and administered an extract of grape-seed procyanidins (GSPE). THP-1 and SGBS cells pre-treated with GSPE showed a reduction of IL-6 and MCP-1 expression after an inflammatory stimulus. GSPE stimuli alone modulate adipokine (APM1 and LEP) and cytokine (IL-6 and MCP-1) gene expression. GSPE partially inhibited NF-kappaB translocation to the nucleus in both cell lines. These preliminary findings demonstrate that GSPE reduces the expression of IL-6 and MCP-1 and enhances the production of the anti-inflammatory adipokine adiponectin suggesting that may have a beneficial effect on low-grade inflammatory diseases such obesity and type 2 diabetes.

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