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Phytochemistry. 2009 Oct-Nov;70(15-16):1876-93. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2009.05.020. Epub 2009 Jun 25.

Diversity, regulation, and evolution of the gibberellin biosynthetic pathway in fungi compared to plants and bacteria.

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1
Institut für Botanik der Westfälischen Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Münster, Germany.

Abstract

Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) are diterpene plant hormones that are biosynthesized through complex pathways and control diverse aspects of growth and development. GAs were first isolated as metabolites of a fungal rice pathogen, Gibberella fujikuroi, since renamed Fusarium fujikuroi. Although higher plants and the fungus produce structurally identical GAs, significant differences in their GA pathways, enzymes involved and gene regulation became apparent with the identification of GA biosynthetic genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and F. fujikuroi. Recent identifications of GA biosynthetic gene clusters in two other fungi, Phaeosphaeria spp. and Sphaceloma manihoticola, and the high conservation of GA cluster organization in these distantly related fungal species indicate that fungi evolved GA and other diterpene biosynthetic pathways independently from plants. Furthermore, the occurrence of GAs and recent identification of the first GA biosynthetic genes in the bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum make it possible to study evolution of GA pathways in general. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the GA biosynthesis pathway, specifically the genes and enzymes involved as well as gene regulation and localization in the genomes of different fungi and compare it with that in higher and lower plants and bacteria.

PMID:
19560174
DOI:
10.1016/j.phytochem.2009.05.020
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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