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Clin Perinatol. 2009 Jun;36(2):377-90, x. doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2009.03.010.

Fetal lower urinary tract obstruction.

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  • 1General Surgery, The Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.


The authors present an overview of the prenatal diagnosis, evaluation, contemporary intervention, and antenatal management of lower urinary tract obstruction. They review early experimental models that confirmed the relation between urinary tract obstruction and renal fibrocystic dysplasia and that early in utero relief of the obstruction could prevent irreversible renal injury. Subsequent studies of the electrolyte and protein concentrations in fetal urine from human cases established prognostic threshold values and helped to develop an algorithm to select candidates for antenatal therapy. Although shunting has improved survival, long-term morbidities remain a significant challenge.

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