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Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009 Sep;297(3):G602-10. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00051.2009. Epub 2009 Jun 25.

Effects of the phases of the menstrual cycle on gastric emptying, glycemia, plasma GLP-1 and insulin, and energy intake in healthy lean women.

Author information

1
University of Adelaide Discipline of Medicine, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Abstract

There is evidence that the menstrual cycle affects appetite, such that energy intake is lower during the follicular compared with the luteal phase. Gastric emptying influences energy intake, glycemia, and plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin, and cholecystokinin (CCK) release. We hypothesized that 1) gastric emptying of a glucose drink is slower, and glycemia, plasma hormones, hunger, and energy intake are less, during the follicular compared with the luteal phase; 2) the reduction in the latter parameters during the follicular phase are related to slower gastric emptying; and 3) these parameters are reproducible when assessed twice within a particular phase of the menstrual cycle. Nine healthy, lean women were studied on three separate occasions: twice during the follicular phase (days 6-12) and once during the luteal phase (days 18-24). Following consumption of a 300-ml glucose drink (0.17 g/ml), gastric emptying, blood glucose, plasma hormone concentrations, and hunger were measured for 90 min, after which energy intake at a buffet meal was quantified. During the follicular phase, gastric emptying was slower (P < 0.05), and blood glucose (P < 0.01), plasma GLP-1 and insulin (P < 0.05), hunger (P < 0.01), and energy intake (P < 0.05) were lower compared with the luteal phase, with no differences for CCK or between the two follicular phase visits. There were inverse relationships between energy intake, blood glucose, and plasma GLP-1 and insulin concentrations with the amount of glucose drink remaining in the stomach at t = 90 min (r < -0.6, P < 0.05). In conclusion, in healthy women 1) gastric emptying of glucose is slower, and glycemia, plasma GLP-1 and insulin, hunger, and energy intake are less during the follicular compared with the luteal phase; 2) energy intake, glycemia, and plasma GLP-1 and insulin are related to gastric emptying; and 3) these parameters are reproducible when assessed twice during the follicular phase.

PMID:
19556358
DOI:
10.1152/ajpgi.00051.2009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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