Send to

Choose Destination
Vaccine. 2009 Oct 30;27(46):6468-70. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.06.013. Epub 2009 Jun 24.

Preparation of bacterial polysaccharide-protein conjugates: analytical and manufacturing challenges.

Author information

Frasch Biologics Consulting, PO Box 986, Martinsburg, WV 25402, USA.


A conjugate can be a polysaccharide (PS) covalently attached to a protein, which provides T cell epitopes for a normally T cell independent antigen. To produce a conjugate vaccine, the purified PS must first be chemically modified to generate reactive groups that can link to the protein. Two commonly used methods for PS activation are periodate oxidation at vicinal hydroxyls and cyanylation of hydroxyls. The PS should be of known molecular size before and after activation. Low molecular weight impurities in the protein may result in inefficient conjugation. Two critical measures after conjugation and purification are the PS to protein ratio and the percent non-conjugated saccharide (free saccharide). Yield and conjugate stability are critical considerations. Typically, considerably less than 20% of the activated PS becomes conjugated. Yield can be improved using newer conjugation methods, whereby highly reactive groups are generated on both the PS and carrier protein with yields approaching 50%. Two major measures used to follow vaccine stability are changes in molecular size and percent free (unbound) PS.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center