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Int J Cardiol. 2011 Jan 21;146(2):145-52. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2009.06.010. Epub 2009 Jun 23.

L-carnitine reduces doxorubicin-induced apoptosis through a prostacyclin-mediated pathway in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

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1
Department of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Clinical use of doxorubicin is greatly limited by its severe cardiotoxic side effects. L-carnitine is a vitamin-like substance which has been successfully used in many cardiomyopathies, however, the intracellular mechanism(s) remain unclear. The objective of this study was set to evaluate the protective effect of L-carnitine on doxorubicin-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and to explore its intracellular mechanism(s).

METHODS:

Primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were treated with doxorubicin (1 µM) with or without pretreatment with L-carnitine (1-30 mM). Lactate dehydrogenase assay, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling staining, and flow cytometry measurement were used to assess cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Fluorescent probes 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate and chemiluminescence assay of superoxide production were used to detect the production of reactive oxygen species. Western blotting was used to evaluate the quantity of cleaved caspase-3, cytosol cytochrome c, and Bcl-x(L) expression.

RESULTS:

L-carnitine inhibited doxorubicin-induced reactive oxygen species generation and NADPH oxidase activation, reduced the quantity of cleaved caspase-3 and cytosol cytochrome c, and increased Bcl-x(L) expression, resulting in protecting cardiomyocytes from doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. In addition, L-carnitine was found to increase the prostacyclin (PGI(2)) generation in cardiomyocytes. The siRNA transfection for PGI(2) synthase significantly reduced L-carnitine-induced PGI(2) and L-carnitine's protective effect. Furthermore, blockade the potential PGI(2) receptors, including PGI(2) receptors (IP receptors), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and delta (PPARα and PPARδ), revealed that the siRNA-mediated blockage of PPARα considerably reduced the anti-apoptotic effect of L-carnitine.

CONCLUSIONS:

These findings suggest that L-carnitine protects cardiomyocytes from doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in part through PGI(2) and PPARα-signaling pathways, which may potentially protect the heart from the severe toxicity of doxorubicin.

PMID:
19552975
DOI:
10.1016/j.ijcard.2009.06.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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