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Int J Cancer. 2009 Dec 15;125(12):2887-92. doi: 10.1002/ijc.24686.

Methylation of cystatin M promoter is associated with unfavorable prognosis in operable breast cancer.

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Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Athens, Athens, Greece.


The methylation status of cystatin M (CST6) gene in breast tumors was investigated and its prognostic significance as a novel breast cancer biomarker was evaluated. Using methylation-specific PCR (MSP), CST6 promoter methylation was examined in 134 formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissues (FFPEs): 10 pairs of breast tumors and their surrounding normal tissues, 10 breast fibroadenomas, 11 normal breast tissues and 93 breast tumors. Methylation of CST6 promoter was observed in 2/21 (9.5%) noncancerous breast tissues, 1/10 (10%) benign breast tumors (fibroadenomas) and 52 (55.9%) operable breast cancer tumor samples. CST6 was rarely methylated in the normal tissue surrounding the tumor (10%). During the follow-up period, 24 (25.8%) patients relapsed and 19 (20.4%) died. CST6 methylation was detected in 19 (79.2%) of patients who relapsed and in 15 (78.9%) of patients who died. Disease-free-interval (DFI) and overall survival (OS) were significantly associated with CST6 promoter methylation (p=0.004 and p=0.001 respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that CST6 methylation is an independent prognostic factor for DFI (HR=3.484; 95% CI: 1.155-10.511; p=0.027). and OS (HR=9.190; 95% CI: 1.989-42.454; p=0.004). CST6 promoter methylation status in tumor cells seems to provide important prognostic information in operable breast cancer and merits to be further evaluated and validated in a larger cohort of patients.

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