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Opt Express. 2007 Nov 12;15(23):15207-13.

Shot noise limited heterodyne detection of CARS signals.

Abstract

We demonstrate heterodyne detection of CARS signals using a cascaded phase-preserving chain to generate the CARS input wavelengths and a coherent local oscillator. The heterodyne amplification by the local oscillator reveals a window for shot noise limited detection before the signal-to-noise is limited by amplitude fluctuations. We demonstrate an improvement in sensitivity by more than 3 orders of magnitude for detection using a photodiode. This will enable CARS microscopy to reveal concentrations below the current mMolar range.

PMID:
19550804
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