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Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1991 Sep;80(1-3):165-75.

The prolactin-inducible protein (PIP/GCDFP-15) gene: cloning, structure and regulation.

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  • 1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.


The androgen and prolactin responsive prolactin-inducible protein (PIP)/gross cystic disease fluid protein (GCDFP-15) is expressed in benign and malignant human breast tumors and in such normal exocrine organs as sweat, salivary and lacrimal glands. In this paper we report the cloning and structure of the human gene, and describe potential mechanisms involved in its regulation by hormones. The entire PIP gene, 7 kb long, was found in a single recombinant phage clone. The gene has 4 exons ranging from 106 bp to 223 bp in length. Nuclear run-on experiments utilizing PIP genomic fragments to detect nascent PIP transcripts revealed that both androgen and prolactin increased transcription of the PIP gene. Neither hormone had any effect on the stability of PIP precursor RNA or mature mRNA. Therefore the PIP gene is an excellent model by which to study the molecular events associated with the actions of prolactin and androgen in the regulation of gene expression in mammalian cells.

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