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Otol Neurotol. 2009 Jun;30(4):484-7. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0b013e3181a5299b.

The visible ear simulator: a public PC application for GPU-accelerated haptic 3D simulation of ear surgery based on the visible ear data.

Author information

  • 1Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. msolv@rh.regionh.dk

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Existing virtual simulators for middle ear surgery are based on 3-dimensional (3D) models from computed tomographic or magnetic resonance imaging data in which image quality is limited by the lack of detail (maximum, approximately 50 voxels/mm3), natural color, and texture of the source material.Virtual training often requires the purchase of a program, a customized computer, and expensive peripherals dedicated exclusively to this purpose.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The Visible Ear freeware library of digital images from a fresh-frozen human temporal bone was segmented, and real-time volume rendered as a 3D model of high-fidelity, true color, and great anatomic detail and realism of the surgically relevant structures. A haptic drilling model was developed for surgical interaction with the 3D model.

RESULTS:

Realistic visualization in high-fidelity (approximately 125 voxels/mm3) and true color, 2D, or optional anaglyph stereoscopic 3D was achieved on a standard Core 2 Duo personal computer with a GeForce 8,800 GTX graphics card, and surgical interaction was provided through a relatively inexpensive (approximately $2,500) Phantom Omni haptic 3D pointing device.

CONCLUSION:

This prototype is published for download (approximately 120 MB) as freeware at http://www.alexandra.dk/ves/index.htm.With increasing personal computer performance, future versions may include enhanced resolution (up to 8,000 voxels/mm3) and realistic interaction with deformable soft tissue components such as skin, tympanic membrane, dura, and cholesteatomas-features some of which are not possible with computed tomographic-/magnetic resonance imaging-based systems.

PMID:
19546800
DOI:
10.1097/MAO.0b013e3181a5299b
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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