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Transplant Proc. 2009 Jun;41(5):1966-8. doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2008.11.010.

Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder in the wall of a lymphocele: a case report.

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1
Department of Dialysis, UHC Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.

Abstract

Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a well-known complication of renal transplantation with increased incidence after introduction of more powerful immunosuppressive drugs. Presenting symptoms are nonspecific; some patients may be entirely asymptomatic. Herein we have reported a case of PTLD arising in the lymphocele wall presenting with B-symptoms and deterioration of graft function. A 62-year-old-female with end-stage renal disease secondary to Balkan endemic nephropathy and positive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serology before transplantation received a renal transplant from a deceased donor. Six months after transplantation she was admitted to the hospital with a 1-week history of malaise, weight loss, anorexia, night sweats, and febrile episodes. Multisliced computed tomography demonstrated a cystic structure at the renal hilus. Graft function deteriorated, so the patient underwent puncture of the lymphocele. Urgent graftectomy was necessary to stop the bleeding. Pathohistology demonstrated EBV-positive, CD20-positive PTLD. The patient received 6 cycles of chemotherapy and continued on hemodialysis. We concluded that a high index of suspicion for PTLD should be maintained when evaluating lymphoceles arising in the later posttransplantation period. Irrespective of their imaging features, biopsy should be performed to exclude PTLD.

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