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Am J Public Health. 2009 Aug;99(8):1478-85. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2008.146241. Epub 2009 Jun 18.

Secondhand smoke in Pennsylvania casinos: a study of nonsmokers' exposure, dose, and risk.

Author information

1
Repace Associates Inc, Bowie, 20720, USA. repace@comcast.net

Erratum in

  • Am J Public Health. 2009 Oct;99(10):1734.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

I assessed air pollution, ventilation, and nonsmokers' risk from secondhand smoke (SHS) in Pennsylvania casinos exempted from a statewide smoke-free workplace law.

METHODS:

I measured respirable suspended particles (RSPs), particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAHs), and carbon dioxide inside and outside casinos; measured changes in patrons' urine cotinine after casino visits; and assessed SHS impact on workers and patrons, using exposure-response models, air quality standards, and odor and irritation thresholds.

RESULTS:

PPAH and RSP concentrations in casinos were, on average, 4 and 6 times, respectively, that of outdoor levels despite generous ventilation and low smoking prevalence. SHS infiltrated into nonsmoking gaming areas. Patrons' urine cotinine increased 1.9 ng/mL on average after about 4-hour visits.

CONCLUSIONS:

SHS-induced heart disease and lung cancer will cause an estimated 6 Pennsylvania casino workers' deaths annually per 10,000 at risk, 5-fold the death rate from Pennsylvania mining disasters. Casinos should not be exempt from smoke-free workplace laws.

PMID:
19542036
PMCID:
PMC2707482
DOI:
10.2105/AJPH.2008.146241
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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