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Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009 Sep;1791(9):850-5. doi: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2009.05.013. Epub 2009 Jun 21.

Phosphatidic acid signaling regulation of Ras superfamily of small guanosine triphosphatases.

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Department of Integrative Biology and Pharmacology University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA.


Phosphatidic acid (PA) has been increasingly recognized as an important signaling lipid regulating cell growth and proliferation, membrane trafficking, and cytoskeletal reorganization. Recent studies indicate that the signaling PA generated from phospholipase D (PLD) and diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) plays critical roles in regulating the activity of some members of Ras superfamily of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases), such as Ras, Rac and Arf. Change of PA levels regulates the activity of small GTPases by modulating membrane localization and activity of small GTPase regulatory proteins, guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). In addition, PA also targets some small GTPases to membranes by direct binding. This review summarizes the roles of PLD and DGK in regulating the activity of several Ras superfamily members and cellular processes they control. Some future directions and the implication of PA regulation of Ras small GTPases in pathology are also discussed.

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