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Expert Rev Vaccines. 2009 Jul;8(7):921-35. doi: 10.1586/erv.09.45.

Vaccination approaches against Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

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1
Cátedra de Inmunología & Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU), CONICET-UBA, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Abstract

In natural infection, the survival of Trypanosoma cruzi, despite the complex immune response elicited including several humoral and cellular components of innate and acquired immunity, suggests that the immune system's natural responses are inherently inadequate. Consequently, it is of paramount importance to find alternatives to direct the immune system before infection, and redirect it after infection, to obtain a prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine. Herein, we review the recent advances in vaccine research and the development of the major antigen candidates, including cruzipain, trans-sialidase, amastigote surface protein, paraflagellar rod protein, among others. In the last 5 years, experimental works have been conducted to analyze DNA delivery systems, including viruses and bacteria, as well as immunomodulators such as CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide, macrophage-activating lipopeptide from Mycoplasma fermentans, glycolipid alpha-galactosylceramide, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, IL-12 and other cytokines and chemokines. The review also covers articles that shed light on some mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity against T. cruzi, which improved our knowledge and provided potentially useful tools to fight infection. A better understanding of the protective immune responses that can effectively arrest T. cruzi survival in the mammalian host is critical for the development of vaccines against Chagas disease.

PMID:
19538117
DOI:
10.1586/erv.09.45
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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